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    地形圖測繪

    地形測量(topographic survey)指的是測繪地形圖的作業。即對地球表面的地物、地形在水平面上的投影位置和高程進行測定,并按一定比例縮小,用符號和注記繪制成地形圖的工作。地形圖的測繪基本上采用航空攝影測量方法,利用航空像片主要在室內測圖。但面積較小的或者工程建設需要的地形圖,采用平板儀測量方法,在野外進行測圖。

    1)綜述

    地形測量包括控制測量和碎部測量。

    2)控制測量

    控制測量是測定一定數量的平面和高程控制點,為地形測圖的依據。平板儀測圖的控制測量通常分首級控制測量和圖根控制測量。首級控制以大地控制點為基礎,用三角測量或導線測量方法在整個測區內測定一些精度較高、分布均勻的控制點。圖根控制測量是在首級控制下,用小三角測量、交會定點方法等加密滿足測圖需要的控制點。圖根控制點的高程通常用三角高程測量或水準測量方法測定。

    3)碎部測量

    碎部測量是測繪地物地形的作業。地物特征點、地形特征點統稱為碎部點。碎部點的平面位置常用極坐標法測定,碎部點的高程通常用視距測量法測定。按所用儀器不同,有平板儀測圖法、經緯儀和小平板儀聯合測圖法、經緯儀(配合輕便展點工具)測圖法等。它們的作業過程基本相同。測圖前將繪圖紙或聚酯薄膜固定在測圖板上,在圖紙上繪出坐標格網,展繪出圖廓點和所有控制點,經檢核確認點位正確后進行測圖。測圖時,用測圖板上已展繪的控制點或臨時測定的點作為測站,在測站上安置整平平板儀并定向,通過測站點的直尺邊即為指向碎部點的方向線,再用視距測量方法測定測站至碎部點的水平距離和高程,按測圖比例尺沿直尺邊沿自測站截取相應長,即碎部點在圖上的平面位置,并在點旁注記高程。這樣逐站邊測邊繪,即可測繪出地形圖。

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